FACTORES MATERNOS Y NEONATALES ASOCIADOS CON LA PRESENCIA DE LÍQUIDO AMNIÓTICO MECONIAL

Lucía de Jesús Ríos-Mino, Pedro Segundo Díaz-Camacho

Resumen


RESUMEN

Objetivo. Determinar los factores maternos y neonatales asociados con la presencia de líquido amniótico meconial (LAM).

Material y método. Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles, evaluándose 234 gestantes de 38 a 40 semanas con parto vaginal, las cuales fueron divididas en 2 grupos: 78 con presencia de LAM y 176 sin presencia de LAM. Se calculó el OR y prueba chi cuadrado para cada factor y se corroboró lo encontrado utilizando regresión logística binaria.

Resultados. Se obtuvo que los siguientes factores presentaron significancia estadística (p<0,05), tanto para el análisis bivariado como para el multivariado:Uso de oxitócicos ORc = 4,02 (IC 95% 2,09-7,76) y ORa = 4,43 (IC 95% 2,16-9,01); anemia en el embarazo ORc = 2,47 (IC 95% 1,39-4,37) y ORa = 2,35 (IC95% 1,27-4,37); distocia funicular ORc = 3,70 (IC 95% 2,07-6,35) y ORa = 3,57(IC 95% 1,94-6,58). También se encontró que el peso del recién nacido y la distocia relativa presentaron significancia estadística en el análisis multivariado:ORa = 3,11 (IC 95% 1,21-8,06) y ORa = 2,91 (IC 95% 1,25-6,76), respectivamente. No se encontró significancia estadística para los factores paridad,edad materna, infección de tracto urinario, atenciones prenatales e índice demasa corporal.

Conclusiones. La anemia en el embarazo, el uso de oxitócicos, el peso del recién nacido, la distocia relativa y la distocia funicular son los únicos factores asociados con la presencia de LAM.

Palabras clave: Factores maternos, Factores neonatales, Líquido amniótico meconial.

 

ABSTRACT

Objective. To determine the maternal and neonatal factors associated with the presence of meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF).

Material and methods. A case-control study was conducted, evaluating 234 pregnant women from 38 to 40 weeks with vaginal delivery, which were divided into 2 groups: 78 with the presence of MSAF and 176 without the presence of LAM. The OR and chi square test were calculated for each factor and the findings were corroborated using binary logistic regression.

Results. The following factors were found to have statistical significance (p <0.05)for both bivariate and multivariate analyzes: Use of oxytocics ORc = 4.02 (CI 95%2.09 - 7.76) and ORa = 4.43 (CI 95% 2.16 - 9.01); Anemia in pregnancy ORc = 2.47(CI 95% 1.39 - 4.37) and ORa = 2.35 (CI 95% 1.27 - 4.37), Funicular dystocia ORc =3.70 (CI 95% 2.07 - 6.35) and ORa = 3.57 (CI 95% 1.94) - 6.58). It was also found that the new born weight and relative dystocia presented statistical significance in them ultivariate analysis: ORa = 3.11 (CI 95% 1.21 - 8.06) and ORa = 2.91 (CI 95% 1.25- 6.76) respectively. No statistical significance was found for the factors parity,maternal age, urinary tract infection, prenatal care and body mass index. No statistical significance was found for the factors parity, maternal age, urinary tract infection, prenatal care and body mass index.

Conclusions. Anemia in pregnancy, the use of oxytocics, new born weight, relativedystocia and funicular dystocia are the only factors associated with the presence of MSAF.

Key words: Maternal factors, neonatal factors, meconium amniotic fluid.


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